A Blupete Biography Page

Dates & Events During The Life Of
Samuel Taylor Coleridge

>Wordsworth is born.

>October 21st: Coleridge is born.

>Southey is born.

>De Quincey is born.

>Coleridge attends Cambridge (Jesus College).

>September massacres in Paris.

>January: Louis XVI is beheaded.
>February 1st: France declares war on England.
>Godwin's Political Justice appears.
>Coleridge takes his leave of Cambridge distressed as he was from his debts and his looming academic failure.

>April 10th: Coleridge, with the help of his brother, gets his discharge from the Dragoons and returns to Cambridge to take up his studies once again.
>June: Coleridge on a visit from Cambridge meets Robert Southey at Oxford. They lay their plans for a pantisocracy.
>August 18th: Coleridge and Southey travel to Nether Stowey.
>At the end of August Coleridge leaves Bristol to return to his studies at Cambridge via London. Once back in Cambridge a "period of frenetic indecision."

>Coleridge and Wordsworth meet in London?
>October 4th: Coleridge marries Sarah Fricker at the church of St Mary Redcliff, Bristol. "Robert Southey was not present. He and S.T.C. were no longer on speaking terms."
>November 14th: Southey marries Edith Fricker at the same church in which Coleridge made his vows, St Mary Redcliff, Bristol (it was the parish of the Fricker family).
>Southey leaves for Portugal without his new wife in order to study with his uncle at Lisbon.

>September 19th: Sarah Coleridge delivers her first child, a son, Hartley. This event, given that their wives were sisters, brings Southey and Coleridge together.
>December 30th: Coleridge with his family settles at Nether Stowey, a Somerset village, under the patronage of the local tanner and literary enthusiast, Tom Poole.

>February: Battle of Cape St. Vincent.
>March: Wordsworth travels with his friend Basil Montagu, on their way to Bristol from Racedown and visit Coleridge at Stowey.
>Coleridge forms friendship with Wordsworth.
>June 28th: Coleridge returns to Nether Stowey from a visit with the Wordsworths at Racedown, within days he sets out to go back to Racedown.
>July 2nd: the Wordsworths, at the urging of Coleridge leave Racedown and come to Nether Stowey to live.
>July: Wordsworth rents a mansion (Alfoxden), close by to Coleridge, at Nether Stowey.
>John Thelwall (1764-1834) pays a visit to Coleridge at Nether Stowey.
>Coleridge is writing "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner"; it is ready for publication on March 23rd, 1798.

>January: France is victorious, without an enemy on the continent, England withdrew her ships from the Mediterranean.
>January 13th: Coleridge sets out for Shrewsbury, there to start his short lived career as a Unitarian minister.
>The Wedgwoods give a life annuity to Coleridge of £150 per year with no conditions.
>May 14: A second child for the Coleridges, a son, Berkeley.
>June: William Hazlitt, a 20 year old walks from his home at Wem, Shropshire to Nether Stowey, Somersetshire, some 150 miles to meet his hero Coleridge (age 26) once again, and, for the first time, Wordsworth (age 28); he spends three weeks there.
>June 26th: the Wordsworths, the lease being up and the landlord not willing to renew, vacate Alfoxden.
>Coleridge with Wordsworth bring out Lyrical Ballads.
>Malthus brings out his Essay on the Principle of Population.
>August: Nelson destroyed Napoleon's fleet at the Battle of the Nile.
>September 16th; Coleridge, John Chester and the Wordsworths set sail for Germany from Yarmouth arriving at Hamburg on the 19th. Within 10 days of their arrival the Wordsworths decided to separate from their companions.

>February 10th: while Coleridge was in Germany, his son, Berkeley was to die.
>April: the Wordsworths return to England.
>Leaving Germany during July of 1799, Coleridge returned to England.
>October 26th: Coleridge arrives at the Hutchinson farm at Stockton-on-Tees, there, for the first time, to meet the Hutchinson sisters: Mary who was to become Wordsworth's wife, and Sara, the younger of the two, who was to become the object of Coleridge's attention for a considerable period of time.
>October: Coleridge quits Stowey leaving Sarah and Hartley behind. He apparently spends some time with the Wordsworths in the north. By December 19th, however, he was in London with them.
>Coleridge turns to newspaper work; he writes for the Morning Post making contributions between December 7th, 1799 and April 21st, 1800. He seem to be on the poltitical beat and he was attend at the House of Commons reporting the debates; he also went off to the theatre in the capacity of a drama critic. During this period, Coleridge was socializing both with the Godwins and the Lambs.
>December 20th: the Wordsworths take up residence at "Dove Cottage," Grasmere.

>Napoleon, having managed to slip back from Egypt the previous autumn of 1799 is anointed the First Consul of France.
>April: Nelson's captures the Danish fleet at Copenhagen which has the effect of breaking up the league (Prussia, Sweden, Denmark and Russia) that had been formed against England.
>March 2nd: Sarah and Harley leave Coleridge to go to visit friends at Kempsford: Coleridge moves to 36 Chapel Street (with Lamb?).
>April 6th: Coleridge arrives at Dove Cottage. He had gone to assist Wordsworth in the putting together of the 2nd ed. of Lyrical Ballads. At this time, too, at the Wordsworths' there was to be found his brother, John who there for a visit (from January to September); Mary Hutchinson was also there for a period of time. By May 4th Coleridge left, in order to see the publishers at Bristol.
>June 29th: the Coleridges arrive at Grasmere.
>July 23rd: the Coleridges take up residence at Greta Hall, Keswick.
>September: a third child is born to the Coleridges, a son, Derwent.

>At this time Coleridge was leading the life of a bachelor in London.

>In 1802, the Treaty of Amiens is signed.
>March: Coleridge returns to the north country, visiting, on route, Mary and Sara Hutchinson, a visit, at Gallow Hill, a visit which did not much impress Sarah Coleridge when she was to find out, apparently, directly from Coleridge when he finally arrived at Greta Hall.
>October 4th: William Wordsworth marries Mary Hutchinson, at Brompton.

>Coleridge's Daughter Sarah is born.
>August 14th: Coleridge sets off with Dorothy and William Wordsworth for a tour through Scotland. A disagreement, the first crack in a great breach which was to come about, occurs; Coleridge separates and returns home, alone.
>September 7th: Southey comes to the Lake District to enter into residence at Greta Hall.

>January 24th: Coleridge, having left Grasmere on the 14th, arrives in London.
>March 27th: Coleridge sets off from London and arrives at Malta on May 18th.
>December 12th: War between Britain and Bonaparte-dominated Spain breaks out.

>The "Third Coalition" against France is formed: Russia and Austria throw in with Britain.
>October 21st: Nelson's victory at Trafalgar.
>At Austerlitz Napoleon lays low the combined armies of Russia and Austria and the "Third Coalition" is no more.

>On January 23rd: in Britain, Pitt dies; Fox takes over.
>May 18th: Coleridge, still out of the country, is, at this point travelling with a friend is at Rome.
>During August, having fled from Italy in June before Napoleon's triumphant advance, Coleridge returns to England.
>October, end of: At Greta Hall, Sarah Coleridge and the children were all joyfully excited at the prospect of seeing Coleridge after his long absence. They were expecting that there would a change and life as a real family would be finally established. Coleridge arrived and the joy and laughter was soon to give way to argument, temper and tears: Coleridge wanted a permanent separation.

>November: De Quincey, who happened to be in Bristol, met, apparently for the first time, Coleridge. (De Quincey, 22 years of age was yet enrolled at Oxford; Coleridge was then 35.) Coleridge wanted to get his family up to the Lake District and de Quincey volunteered to escort them there by "post-chaise."

>February: Hearing that Coleridge was in a bad way, Wordsworth went off to London to see if he could help.
>In support of a Spanish rising, in July, Arthur Wellesley (later to become known as the Duke of Wellington) leads the first small British force of 9000 men into the Peninsula of Spain; a gate into the hostile fortress of Napoleonic Europe.
>June: the Wordsworths moved into their new home, Allan Bank, Grasmere. Coleridge and Sara Hutchinson now living with the Wordsworths.

>Coleridge brings out a weekly paper, The Friend, the first number of which came out on June 1st, 1809; and the last, after 27, on March 15th, 1810.

>George III ill; his son, the Duke of Wales (1762-1830) takes over as the Prince Regent; in 1820, on his father's death, he becomes George IV.
>February: Sara Hutchinson leaves Allan Bank.
>June: Coleridge, fond of his comforts and missing Sara Hutchinson takes his leave of Allan Bank and moves back in with his wife at Greta Hall: this cohabitation lasts about five months.
>Leaving Greta Hall on October 18th, Coleridge goes to London, arriving on the 28th. There he strikes up a friendship with Crabb Robinson. This seems to coincide with a breach in the friendship that he had with Wordsworth. The quarrel between the two poets became a cause célèbre.

>January: Hunt brothers acquitted of seditious libel.

>May: Wordsworth is in London to see, with the help of Crabb Robinson, if he can patch things up with Coleridge.
>May: Prime Minister Perceval, assassinated.
>Coleridge pays, what, at this point, is a rare visit to Keswick.
>Following his return from Greta Hall, Coleridge, in May and June, "lectured on drama at Willis' rooms, St James' Square."
>On 18 June, 1812, President Madison and the American Congress declares war on Britain.
>General election in Britain.
>Liverpool becomes the English Prime Minister.
>November 3rd, 1812 to January 26th, 1813: Coleridge delivers lectures at the Surrey Institution on Tuesday evenings.

>January 23rd to February 12th (20 days): Coleridge's drama, Remorse (previously named Osorio), has moderate success at Drury Lane.
>It was during the winter that the news came of Napoleon's retreat from Moscow and his struggle to retain hold of central Europe.
>In England 13 "Luddites" are hung at the York Assizes.
>Southey becomes Poet Laureate and is so until 1843.
>Oct. 28th - Nov. 23rd: At Bristol, Coleridge gives a repeat of his successful lectures which he had given in London (Royal Institution) on Shakespeare; twice weekly, Tuesdays and Thursdays.

>April: Paris is captured and Bonaparte abdicates.

>June 18th: the Battle of Waterloo.

>April 15th: Coleridge takes up residence in Highgate, London at the home of Dr. James Gillman; Gillman helps Coleridge with his long-standing opium addiction. It was intended that Coleridge was to stay with the Gillmans for a month; he stayed with them until his death in 1834.
>May 25th: Murray publishes Coleridge's works, Chrisabel, Kubla Khan, and The Pains of Sleep.
>The war against the Radical Press in England heats up; Habeas Corpus Act is suspended for a whole year as a result of the Spa Fields Riot on December 16th, 1816.

>Coleridge publishes Biographia Literaria.
>Coleridge Consults Crabb Robinson about "expediency of prosecuting for a libel on him in the Edinburgh Magazine [Blackwood's]".

>Unrest in England, with the Northern and Midland radicals causing sporadic violence and attacks on mills.
>General election.

>"Peterloo," On August 16th, 1819, "an orderly and unarmed crowed of about 60,000 men, women and children" assemble in support of universal suffrage, in St. Peter's Fields, Manchester. They were there to hear the speaker, Radical Hunt. The magistrates, in a move to arrest the speaker, order the cavalry in: "eleven persons, including two women, were killed or died of their injuries; over a hundred were wounded by sabres and several hundred more injured by horse-hoofs or crushed in the stampede."
>Keats writes Hyperion; Shelley, Promethus Unbound.
>A Factory Bill prohibiting children under the age of nine to work in cotton mills is passed in 1819; this is the first of a series of parliamentary bills which were to be passed over the next forty years in a process of law reform which was first prompted by the writings of the legal philosopher, Jeremy Bentham.

>January 29: George III dies, George IV (1762-1830) takes the throne, due to his father's derangement he had been the Prince Regent since 1810.
>General election in Britain.
>Thistlewood's planned insurrection in February of 1820; hung May 1st.
>In June Caroline returns to England and the Caroline Crisis ensues; it "swallowed up every other topic from June to November."

>The trial of the Queen, - the coronation - the death of queen Caroline - the second expedition of Parry to the Polar discoveries, and the insurrections in Greece, cover the columns of our periodicals in 1821.
>February: Keats Dies.
>The coronation of George IV takes place on July 19th.
>Caroline dies on August 7th, 1821.
>De Quincey published in the London Magazine his essay, Confessions of an English Opium Eater. in this essay, de Quincey casts Coleridge, also, as an Opium Eater; this was no revelation to Coleridge's family and close friends, but to put it out in the public press "exceedingly annoyed and distressed" them.

>July 8th, 1822: Shelley dies in Italy as a result of a sailing accident.
>Castlereagh, in August of 1822, the pressures of government being apparently too much for him, commits suicide by slitting his throat. Castlereagh had done more than any other diplomat to bring about Napoleon's fall and to establish peace in Europe, but unfortunately he "had identified himself in his last years with the anti-Jacobin domestic policy in its final stage of decay." His death "was hailed by most of his poor fellow-countrymen with revengeful glee, which found voice in the horrible cheers that greeted his coffin as it passed into Westminster Abbey."

>At age 36, Byron dies at Missolonghi, Greece.
>John Thurtell (1794-1824) at the conclusion of a famous English trial is hung at Hertford.
>New industries were envisioned: railway, gas, steamship, iron, and coal; companies were being organized for them all, most legitimate, not all. London was now experiencing a bull market which ran from summer 1824 to autumn 1825. Speculators elbowed in with dreams for sale; a credit crunch and, in turn, an economic disaster followed.

>Economic crash in England. >Coleridge publishes Aids to Reflection.

>John Walker (1781-1859), a chemist, inventor, born Stockton-on-Tees, in 1827, invented the friction match; they were called "Congreves" (alluding to the Congreve's rocket), later named Luicifers, and, eventually, matches.
>April: Liverpool has a stroke and Canning becomes Prime Minister, who in turn died in August of 1827; after which Wellington took over.
>The first allied peace keeping mission, with Admiral Sir Edward Codrington in charge, sailed into Navrino Bay, Turkey, and, on the 20th of October 1827 the Battle of Navrino ensued, which, while lasting only four hours, took the lives of 8,000 Turks and Egyptians; the allies lost only 178 men; this was to be the last of the great sea battles between the square sailed fighting ships.

>In London a exhibition specifically devoted to machinery is held.

>Sir Robert Peel's police make their appearance in London; before this time public tranquillity was maintained by the military forces. With "Peelers" there now existed "an efficient civilian force, of non-partisan character, and armed only with staves.

>June 22: George IV dies and William IV, the popular sailor king, takes the throne.
>General election in Britain. The Duke's government is swept way and Earl Charles Grey (1764-1845) comes in; it was his task to frighten, persuade and cajole the King, the Lords and the borough-owners into giving up their power; he had only to point to the European continent.

>Coleridge's health is in a serious state; he is at Dr. Gillman's home at Highgate; he has regular visitors including Lamb and Robinson. Robinson observes that Coleridge was "horribly bent and looked seventy years of age."
>The Reform Bill.
>Bentham dies.
>Scott dies.
>Darwin sails on the Beagle.

>Coleridge dies.
>Lamb dies.

>Southey dies and is buried at Keswick.
>Wordsworth is appointed the poet laureate.

>Wordsworth dies.


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