FN1 Ch45 D. C. Harvey, "Uniacke's Memorandum on Nova Scotia, 1806," The Canadian Historical Review (Mar., 1936), p. 41.
FN2 Ch45 Donald H. Tait, "Dr. Charles Tupper," NSHS, #36, p. 281.
FN3 Ch45 A. H. U. Colquhoun, The Fathers of Confederation, No.28 in the 32 volume series on the history of Canada edited by Wrong and Langton, (Toronto: Glasgow, Brook & Co., 1914-6), p. 49.
FN4 Ch45 B. D. Tennyson ("Another Look at Confederation," NSHQ, #2:2) was quoting from Peter B. Waite's work, The Life and Times of Confederation (Toronto 1962).
FN5 Ch45 B. D. Tennyson, "Another Look at Confederation," NSHQ, #2:2, p. 144.
FN6 Ch45 Colquhoun, The Fathers of Confederation, No.28 in the 32 volume series on the history of Canada edited by Wrong and Langton, (Toronto: Glasgow, Brook & Co., 1914-6), p. 51.
FN7 Ch45 This secrecy was necessary so that everyone (all politicians looking to get elected again) could discuss the matter with candor. This secrecy, however, added fuel to the flames of opposition that exited in each of the home provinces. (Colquhoun, The Fathers of Confederation, p. 101.); no official records exist; and just few notes taken by certain of the delegates have come down to us. (Ibid., p. 59.)
FN8 Ch45 John George Bourinot, Canada under British Rule (Toronto: Copp-Clark, 1901), pp. 206-7. The first motion, which was made by John A. Macdonald of Canada (Kingston) and seconded by Samuel Leonard Tilley of New Brunswick, was: "That the best interests and present and future prosperity of British North America will be promoted by a federal union under the crown of Great Britain, provided such union can be effected on principles just to the several provinces." This motion set out the principal rule on which matters were to proceed and was unanimously passed amidst much enthusiasm. (Colquhoun, The Fathers of Confederation, p. 63.)
FN9 Ch45 Bourinot, Canada under British Rule, p. 207.
FN10 Ch45 Though to "most Nova Scotians, being taken over by the United States did not seem half as disastrous as being reduced to 'the degraded position of a servile dependency on Canada.'" [Kay Grant, Samuel Cunard: Pioneer of the Atlantic Steamship (London: Abelard-Schuman, 1967), p. 168.] It was a famous Canadian, D'Arcy McGee, who perceived what the beginnings of the Civil War in the States meant to Canadians. "The first gun fired at Fort Sumter," McGee declared, "had a message for us." (See Colquhoun, The Fathers of Confederation, p. 25.) Remote as this seemed to be to many at the time, it became clear when the "Trent Affair" unfolded. The Trent was a British steamer. It had been boarded by a party from a northern American warship late in 1861; two people were taken into custody. They were taken, on the claim that these two people were southern agents. The envoys were bound for Great Britain and France to press the Confederacy’s case for diplomatic recognition by Europe. It looked like the northern states were going to take on Great Britain in addition to the southern sates; Canada, in that event would be open to armed attack by the northern states. As it turned out the prisoners were released by the Americans, but the relationship between the United States for the succeeding ten years was, shall we say, strained.
FN11 Ch45 "In the realm of foreign policy the United States was constantly attacked by the Halifax press throughout the period 1827-40. The United States was felt to be an aggressive and expansionist power." (R. H. McDonald, "Nova Scotia Newspapers View the United States 1827-1840," NSHQ, #6:1, p. 9.)
FN12 Ch45 In a letter to Lord Carnarvon, dated July 28th, 1866, as set out by Saunders, The Life and Letters of the Right Hon. Sir Charles Tupper (Cassell & Co., 1916), pp. 131-2.
FN13 Ch45 Canada under British Rule (1760-1900), (Toronto: Copp-Clark, 1901), p. 212.
FN14 Ch45 Tennyson, "Another Look at Confederation," NSHQ, #2:2, p. 146.
FN15 Ch45 Ibid., p. 145.