FN1 Ch01 "Peterloo:" On August 16th, 1819, "an orderly and unarmed crowd of about 60,000 men, women and children" assembled in support of universal suffrage, in St. Peter's Fields, Manchester. They were there to hear the speaker, Radical Hunt. The magistrates, in a move to arrest the speaker, ordered the cavalry in: "eleven persons, including two women, were killed or died of their injuries; over a hundred were wounded by sabres and several hundred more injured by horse-hoofs or crushed in the stampede." (George Macaulay Trevelyan, British History in the Nineteenth Century (London: Longmans, Green; 1924), p. 189.)
FN2 Ch01John Ashton, The Dawn of the XIXth Century in England (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 5th ed., 1906), p. 435; George Macaulay Trevelyan, English Social History (Toronto: Longmans & Green, 1946), p. 530 & p. 482.
FN3 Ch01Bligh's Nova Scotia Law Index (Halifax: McAlpine, 1901).
FN4 Ch01"The negro population of Hammonds Plains and Preston, the latter particularly, had been, after the peace, supplied with the American uniform coats taken at Castine or somewhere in Maine in the year 1813. The sky blue coats with red and sometimes yellow facings, in conjunction with old torn and patched trousers of every description ..." (Thomas Beamish Akins, NSHS, #8, p. 207.)
FN5 Ch01 Ibid. No matter that Akins wrote, that the "practice of publicly whipping thieves had almost altogether gone out of fashion by this time": During the times under review the consequences of breaking the law were severe. In 1816, men were put to death for serious crimes; and for certain of the less serious crimes the Supreme Court would order that one of the convict's ears be cut off; thus it was that one-eared men were to be avoided. (Murdoch, vol. 3, p. 393.) During the April term, 1821, the Supreme Court at Halifax sentenced a person who had been convicted of forgery, "pillory, one hour and to have one of his ears cut off, and suffer imprisonment for the space of one year." (Murdoch, vol. 3, p. 474.) It was only in 1841, that an act was passed in Nova Scotia abolishing "Pillory, Cutting off the Ears and Whipping."