FN1 Ch36 Autobiography of John Stuart Mill (Oxford University Press, 1949).
FN2 Ch36 George Macaulay Trevelyan, British History in the Nineteenth Century (London: Longmans, Green; 1924), p. 41.
FN3 Ch36 N. McL. Rogers, "The Great Reform Act," Dalhousie Review, Vol. 12 (1933), No. 4., p. 463. Rogers continued, "It encouraged corruption and debauchery on a lavish scale."
FN4 Ch36 Also known as a close borough, a pocket borough, or a rotten borough -- rotten in the sense they were so decayed as to no longer have a real constituency.
FN5 Ch36 G. M. Trevelyan, Lord Grey of the Reform Bill (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1929, 2nd ed.), p. 266.
FN6 Ch36 Llewellyn Woodward, The Age of Reform: 1815-1870 (1938)(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2nd ed., 1962), pp. 80-1.
FN7 Ch36 N. McL. Rogers, "The Great Reform Act," Dalhousie Review, Vol. 12 (1933), No. 4., p. 468.
FN8 Ch36 Ibid., pp. 468-9.
FN9 Ch36 It was not, both before the act of 1832 and for a long time after, the case that the British parliament had representatives of the people in it: there continued to be a large portion of the population not represented. "In 1830 the British Commons represented an electorate of about 220,000 out of a total population of approximately 14 million, or about 3 percent of the adult population." [Bruno Leoni, Freedom and the Law (Indianapolis: Liberty Press, 3rd Ed., 1991), p. 115.]
FN10 Ch36 Woodward, The Age of Reform: 1815-1870 (1938)(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2nd ed., 1962), p. 92.
FN11 Ch36 The British government, having reformed the manner by which parliamentary members were elected, turned its attention to local government. A parliamentary committee was set up to makes inquires and recommendations. In June of 1833 a report was filed. One of its principal observations was that those who ran the municipality should be popularly elected and their meetings should be open to the public. The act also provided that the municipalities (boroughs) were to publish their financial accounts. So too, for each there was to be a salaried town clerk and treasurer who were not to be members of the council.
FN12 Ch36 G. M. Trevelyan, Shortened History of England (Penguin, 1960), p. 478.
FN13 Ch36 G. M. Trevelyan, Lord Grey of the Reform Bill (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1929, 2nd ed.), p. 289.
FN14 Ch36 Rogers, "The Great Reform Act," Dalhousie Review, Vol. 12 (1933), No. 4., 464.
FN15 Ch36 Lord Grey of the Reform Bill , p. 272.
FN16 Ch36 Rogers, "The Great Reform Act," Dalhousie Review, p. 461.
FN17 Ch36 The 1819 act provided that no child should be employed under the age of nine years. Further, any child under sixteen was not to be employed for more than twelve hours a day, exclusive of meal-times. (See Hutchins & Harrison, A History of Factory Legislation (London: P. S. King & son, Orchard House, Westminster 1911), p. 24.)
FN18 Ch36 G. M. Trevelyan, English Social History (Toronto: Longmans & Green, 1946), p. 518. "In 1833 Lord Althrop passed the first effective factory act, fixing legal limits for the working hours of children and young persons respectively. The great merit of the Bill, little recognized at the time, was the institution of government inspectors to enforce the law. It was the beginning of a whole new development in social welfare." [G. M. Trevelyan, Shortened History of England (Penguin, 1960), p. 477.]